The Water Framework Directive establishes a common framework for sustainable and integrated management of waters, that means the key word for achieving a good status of all water bodies is that of "integration".
From this perspective, GIS (Geographical Information System) provides the possibility to access relatively easier data stocked and help the decision makers to analyze the effect of change in land use, water usage and water abstraction or point and diffuse pollution.
Diffuse pollution sources:
Chemical fertilisers used in agriculture
The Water Framework Directive demands a good knowledge of the many complex interactions between natural processes and human activities.
Assessment of the pressure - state - impact interaction and the relation to the economic consequences as well as the identification and quantification of possible measures for achieving the environmental objectives can be facilitated using GIS and mathematical modeling tools.
The processing of environmental data through GIS, and their visualization in the most accessible and intelligible way represents a crucial advantage supporting the environmental research and monitoring.